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A technical revolution has been seized in the fields of the scientific community. Research labs have adopted new technology globally to facilitate the transformation of human, animals and plants DNA. In comparison to other technology to modify human DNA, the new approach of CRISPR technology has set a new example. Genetic engineering using CRISPR technology has changed the way basic researches are conducted. It has introduced a faster and easier way to treat disease and provides a better outcome.
CRISPR or Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat indicates the unique organization of short, partially palindromic DNA sequences that found in genomes of bacteria and other microorganisms. CRISPR sequences are vital components of the immune system that is responsible for protecting an organism’s health and well-being as well.
Bacterial cells can be invaded by a virus that is small and infectious agents. When a viral infection threatens a bacterial cell, the immune system developed through genetic engineering using CRISPR technology can thwart the attack by destroying the genome of the virus. On the other hand, the genome of the virus includes genetic material required for the virus to continue the replicating process. Therefore, by attacking the viral genome, the CRISPR immune system takes care of the bacteria from ongoing infection.
CRISPR helps to defend against invading viruses. CRISPR regions are made of short DNA repeats and spacers. The CRISPR sequences are transcribed for generating short CRISPR RNA molecules. In the next step, the components get associated with to guide bacterial molecular machinery finally to a matching targeted sequence.
The spacers are particularly driven from DNA of infected viruses. Therefore, it works as a genetic memory of the primary infection. The CRISPR immune system can cut up further DNA sequence and guard the bacterium from any viral attack.
Genetic engineering using CRISPR technology works to safeguard the bacteria from continuous viral attacks through the following steps:
Adaptation: CRISPR adaptation is a multistep process that includes selection, generation and incorporation of pre-spacers to arrays. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating smaller segments of foreign DNA.
Production of CRISPR RNA: When the spacer is incorporated and the virus attacks repeatedly, a section of CRISPR is transcribed and processed to crRNA. The nucleotide sequence acts as a template for protecting complementary sequence of single-stranded RNA.
Targeting: CRISPR RNA helps bacterial molecular machinery for destroying viral materials. CRISPR targets the gene of interest with the help of Cas9 enzymes that target the DNA. It can target particular DNA sequences in the genome from RNA sequence.
Any new technology takes time to flourish and be perfect. It will be crucial to verify the specific RNA before the CRISPR system mistakenly attacks other genes. It is also crucial to deliver proper CRISPR therapies before it can be used widely as medication. There are various factors to be discovered for this new-generation technology. However, the CRISPR system is undoubtedly a major therapeutic tool in research.