How molecular technologies function? ; Steps Involved in PCR

How molecular technologies function? ; Steps Involved in PCR

Molecular technologies develop and support programmable molecular for analyzing and regulating the condition of endogenous biological circuitry. Basic technology molecular biology has a wide range of application methods to prevent disease and treat new generation protein products. This technology can also manipulate plants and animals to mould desired phenotypic traits. The most powerful technology involves in molecular biology includes PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).

One may get confused about genetics and molecular biology. Molecular Biology covers the structure and function of proteins and expression of genes in cells. On the other hand, Genetics deals with genetic parts of Molecular Biology. Basic technology molecular biology involves manipulation and analyzation of four integral factors. · DNA · RNA · Protein · Lipid

Enzymes used in molecular biology

The discovery and characterization of key enzymes granted the development of various techniques to analyze and manipulate DNA. Enzymes recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave them in a defined manner. The staggered ends produced by the similar enzyme are complementary and anneal to each other. DNA ligase is widely exploited in molecular biology and it allows the construction of recombinant DNA.

Isolation and Separation of Nucleic Acids

Analysis of DNA involves purification and isolation of DNA structure. It refers to be the presence of EDTA Mg2+ icons for an enzyme. After the release of nucleic acid from a cell, RNA can be removed through treatment with RNase (ribonuclease).

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR involves elegant simplicity, which is one of the reasons for adopting PCR. It is one of the first techniques to analyze DNA and RNA factors. DNA database and other significant nucleic acid sequence and major protein analysis software can be accessed oven internet with proper software and authority. This research often referred to as Silico research. It is undoubtedly best among the basic technology molecular biology and biotechnological research.

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is one of the finest techniques in molecular biology. This technology comprises three fundamental steps:
Denaturation: in this process, proteins or nucleic acid loses the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and finally, secondary structure. It is present in its native state with the application of external stress or compound factors like strong acid or base, concentrated inorganic salt and organic solvent, radiation, or heat.
Annealing: it is a heat treatment process to alter the microstructure of any material. It is to change mechanical properties. With the process of two-stranded oligonucleotides, it runs a complementary sequence. It is a crucial stage of basic technology molecular biology. With a series of sequence and heat bonding processes, it breaks all hydrogen bonds.

On the other hand, cooling permits new bonds to build between various sequences. It characteristically refers to annealing DNA. However, the same process is practiced to process RNA.

Extension: Extension is accomplished to achieve loosened nucleotides to develop complementary DNA strands. The outcome is double-stranded products of DNA. The temperature used while the extension phase is entirely dependent on DNA polymerase.

End of First PGR Cycle: At the final stage, there remain two identical strands. The new strands have a beginning precisely defined by 5’ end of the primer. However, the 3’ end is not properly defined. After a few cycles, it presents a much larger number and provides a variable-length sequence. The final sequence is defined by two primers, which are amplified.

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